Learn Linux -3 The File System

Aim: The article aims to introduce the Linux Filesystem to the reader.


Before we start learning about the Filesystem followed by linux, let us quickly have a look at what is a FIlesystem all about. We will only look at the basics and may be come back for a more in depth understanding later. 

The data stored in the hard disks, CDs or any other storage media need to be accessed by the operating system to present it to the user. For Eg: In windows when we click open c: and open the c:\windows, it should show us only the files that are a part of the windows folder. 
Every operating system uses a specific format to store and access the data on the storage media . This format is called as the filesystem. 
The standard filesystem used by the widows is FAT(File Allocation Table) and NTFS(New Technology File System).

With out a filesystem it would be very difficult to efficiently manage and  retrieve the data.

Linux Filesystem:

The Linux file system follows a hierarchal directory structure. Unlike windows there are not partitions like c:\ or d:\. All the directories originate from a single point "/" called as the mount point.  The following Image should make it more clearer. 

The directories shown in the above figure that originate from "/" are the default folders present when Linux is installed. Every user other than the root is has a home folder in  "/home/username".  
The root on the other hand has his home folder under the "/" itself i.e.  "/root"

If you have not logged in as "root" you will be able to create files and folders only after "/home/username/". 

For Eg: Here is a screen shot of the home folder for the user test (in ubuntu)

The filesystem that Linux follows is ext3(Third extended) or ext4(Fourth Extended ).

There is a lot more in the domain of filesystems but to start with linux, this much information should be fine.

If you have got the hang of the file systems.... then lets move to learn using the commands on the terminal. 

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